The ice cream industry is worth billions of dollars globally and is a market segment that many people are interested in. However, the price of ice creams can be quite high. A large part of the reason for this is that the ingredients used to make them can be quite expensive.
Some techniques for reducing costs include using cheaper ingredients, but there are also less expensive ways that do not require this sacrifice. For example, emulsifiers are an ingredient that is used in the production of ice cream. Instead of using a cheap one, manufacturers can use a more expensive but more effective one. This means that it is possible to save money without sacrificing quality.
Ice cream emulsifier types
- Simple oil and water emulsification
This kind of emulsifier works by spreading the oil relatively thinly over the water in a thin layer. As it does this, it creates a resistance to the inward flow of water but, at the same time, allows an outward flow of oil. These emulsifiers are called amphiphilic, which simply means that they can both attract and repel water. The main downside of these emulsifiers is that they are not as efficient at creating a fine dispersion of oil in water and, as such, can be seen as an inferior option.
- Suspension emulsifiers
Suspension emulsifiers are a type of emulsifier that can be used to create smaller droplets of oil. They do this by colliding with the existing water droplets and breaking them up into smaller ones that can more easily surround the oil droplets. This means that more oil is able to be dispersed into the water; however, suspension emulsifiers are not very energy efficient and can only create a small amount of oil per unit of energy. One way around this is to simply add more suspension emulsifiers.
- Oil in water emulsifier
These kinds of emulsifiers work by creating an alternative version of oil – one that can also form base layers with water. When these emulsifiers are present, it is possible for the oil to be dispersed in the water when it is below room temperature. This is not possible with normal oil and water emulsion because the temperature needs to be higher. These are also known as butterfat globule dispersing agents because they release fat droplets at a lower temperature than normal.
- Artificial emulsifiers
The reason that there are so many different types of emulsifiers is because of the various ways that they can be manufactured. They are extremely versatile, and as such, there are as many as 50 different artificial emulsifiers, all with slightly differing properties. The main difference between these types and other kinds is that they are made in a lab rather than naturally occurring in food.
- Natural emulsifiers
Similar to artificial emulsifiers, natural ones are made through processes such as blending. This means that it is possible to create new kinds of emulsifiers that could not be found in nature. These kinds of emulsifiers are usually natural and can include milk proteins and other kinds of protein. These are often from sources such as eggs, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, and even soybeans.
- Nonionic surface active agents
As well as being able to alter the size of the oil droplets in water, these surface active agents can also join other foods together. Some examples of this include bread and cheese. This is because they are nonionic, which simply means that they have no electrical charge.
- Ionic surface active agents
These types of agents are another kind of surface active agent, but their main difference is that they do carry a charge. The ionic charge can attract charged particles in the mixture and, as such, help to keep them together by acting something like glue. This means that they are a better choice if the emulsion is going to be mixed with other foods, as a result of making the particles stick together.
- Lipid surface active agents
These agents work in much the same way that ionic ones do, but instead of being made up of protein, they are made from fatty acids. This means that there is an electrical charge on the particles and, as such, can attract charged particles in foodstuffs. As well as this, they can also change the size of oil droplets in water because they have the ability to hold a variety of different charges.
- Amphoteric surface active agents
Lots of types of emulsifiers are amphoteric, which means that they are able to attract both polar and non-polar particles. This is useful for ice cream because it means that it is possible for these types of emulsifiers to create bonds with both water and fat molecules. In other words, they are able to create a fine dispersion of oil in water.
- Reverse micelles
These are another type of surface active agent, but unlike the others on this list, they only work for very short periods of time. This is because when they have settled into the fat surface of food, it stops creating these long-lasting emulsions. However, this means that they are great at preventing fats from separating in liquid foods such as oil and milk. This means that they are very useful when making ice cream.
- Fluorocarbon-based emulsifiers
These are usually made from ethylene oxide, which is a synthetic compound that is used in the making of many different types of chemicals. However, this does not mean that it is difficult to use other types of fluorocarbon-based emulsifiers in food. These are better known as surfactants, and they typically come in the form of fluorinated oil or fluorinated waxes. These agents have the ability to help oil and water emulsions stay together by forming strong bonds with different particles in foods.
These are just some of the many kinds of emulsifiers that can be used in ice cream production. There is a vast array of emulsifiers that can be engineered to create different kinds of emulsions, which can be very beneficial to food manufacturers. These emulsifiers can also allow for new ingredients to be added to the mix without having to change the recipes or the process completely.
Ice cream emulsifiers are used to prepare ice cream and other frozen desserts. However, to find the most effective one for the job, it is important to consider quality as well as cost. For example, the more expensive ones may have better performance, but more expensive ingredients are also more likely to have exorbitant shipping and storage costs. This can be a significant issue. As such, these techniques are not really perfect alternatives to using cheaper ingredients or a traditional emulsifier.